4 Dharma Seals

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Four Dharma Seals are the four characteristics which reflect true Buddhist teaching according to the Mahayana. It is said that if a teaching contains the Four Dharma Seals then it can be considered Buddha Dharma. It is equivalent to the Theravada 3 marks of existence, with the fourth added.

The Four Seals are as follows:

  • 1. All compounded things are impermanent
  • 2. All emotions are suffering
  • 3. All phenomena are without inherent existence
  • 4. Nirvana is beyond description