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(skt.: prajnaparamita; tib.: she rab kyi pha rol tu chin pa) Literally means Perfection of Wisdom. It can refer to several things:
- 1. textual perfection of wisdom: prajnaparamita sutras which are the teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha. They are classified in three groups: long (100.000 verses), middle (20.000 verses) and short (8.000 verses) prajnaparamita sutras. All of them primarily explain the wisdom of emptiness and the path of the bodhisattva, so they are mahayana sutras. They are associated with the second turning of the wheel of Dharma. There are about 40 sutras which belong to the group of prajnaparamita sutras like Heart Sutra, Diamond cutter Sutra, etc. The most important interpreter of these sutras was Arya Nagarjuna (lived at around second century) who on the basis of these sutras set the middle way philosophy, which is considered supreme presentation of the wisdom of emptiness.
- 2. natural perfection of wisdom: refers to emptiness
- 3. path perfection of wisdom: wisdom of bodhisattva imbued with wisdom of emptiness and bodhicitta
- 4. result perfection of wisdom: refers to omniscience of a Buddha
- 5. deity Great Mother (tib.: yum chen mo): said to be the Mother of all the Buddhas, because the perfection of wisdom produces all the Buddhas.